Monday, March 16, 2020
Deregulating Telecommunications Until the 1980s in the United States, the term telephone company was synonymous with American Telephone Telegraph. ATT controlled nearly all aspects of the telephone business. Its regional subsidiaries, known as Baby Bells, were regulated monopolies, holding exclusive rights to operate in specific areas. The Federal Communications Commission regulated rates on long-distance calls between states, while state regulators had to approve rates for local and in-state long-distance calls. Government regulation was justified on the theory that telephone companies, like electric utilities, were natural monopolies. Competition, which was assumed to require stringing multiple wires across the countryside, was seen as wasteful and inefficient. That thinking changed beginning around the 1970s, as sweeping technological developments promised rapid advances in telecommunications. Independent companies asserted that they could, indeed, compete with ATT. But they said the telephone monopoly effectively shut them out by refusing to allow them to interconnect with its massive network. The First Stage of Deregulation Telecommunications deregulation came in two sweeping stages. In 1984, a court effectively ended ATTs telephone monopoly, forcing the giant to spin off its regional subsidiaries. ATT continued to hold a substantial share of the long-distance telephone business, but vigorous competitors such as MCI Communications and Sprint Communications won some of the business, showing in the process that competition could bring lower prices and improved service. A decade later, pressure grew to break up the Baby Bells monopoly over local telephone service. New technologies- including cable television, cellular (or wireless) service, the Internet, and possibly others- offered alternatives to local telephone companies. But economists said the enormous power of the regional monopolies inhibited the development of these alternatives. In particular, they said, competitors would have no chance of surviving unless they could connect, at least temporarily, to the established companies networks- something the Baby Bells resisted in numerous ways. Telecommunications Act of 1996 In 1996, Congress responded by passing the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The law allowed long-distance telephone companies such as ATT, as well as cable television and other start-up companies, to begin entering the local telephone business. It said the regional monopolies had to allow new competitors to link with their networks. To encourage the regional firms to welcome competition, the law said they could enter the long-distance business once the new competition was established in their domains. At the end of the 1990s, it was still too early to assess the impact of the new law. There were some positive signs. Numerous smaller companies had begun offering local telephone service, especially in urban areas where they could reach large numbers of customers at low cost. The number of cellular telephone subscribers soared. Countless Internet service providers sprung up to link households to the Internet. But there also were developments that Congress had not anticipated or intended. A great number of telephone companies merged, and the Baby Bells mounted numerous barriers to thwart competition. The regional firms, accordingly, were slow to expand into long-distance service. Meanwhile, for some consumers- especially residential telephone users and people in rural areas whose service previously had been subsidized by business and urban customers- deregulation was bringing higher, not lower, prices. This article is adapted from the book Outline of the U.S. Economy by Conte and Carr and has been adapted with permission from the U.S. Department of State.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Sales Force Compensation - Assignment Example The company deals in beauty, fashion Jewelry and apparel. It has one of the largest salespeople in the world approximated at 6.5 million. The company has over 120 years in the industry with a strong financial background and resources to pull its operations. With a clear, well structured, multi-level compensation plan, the company has continued to attract and retain its salespeople making it a highly competitive firm. In order to motivate the sales force to produce the highest number of clients, describe six (6) features of an effective total rewards program. Rewards for many decades have been used primarily as a necessary evil in the attraction and retention of employees. However many studies suggest that there is no direct link between rewards and employee performance although research shows that the absence of it demotivates employees (Robillard, 2008: O'Halloran, 2012). This has thus led to the need to implement total rewards strategy that could be used to drive business success. Such a program could be used by the organization in addressing some of the challenging issues in the 21st century such as aging workforce, competition in the market place, influence of globalization on firms and the need to operate effectively in different business strategies such as in mergers and acquisitions (Armstrong, 2010). A total rewards program includes the overall value proposition that a firm provides to its employees. Such a package includes compensation which includes: basic pay, short term incentives and long term incentives; benefits which include health, retirement, work/life benefits; and careers which include such things as training and development, lateral moves, stretch assignments and career incentives (Manas & Graham, 2003). An effective total reward system has the following key features: first it has a mix of both monetary and non-monetary rewards (Asinof, 2006). The monetary rewards include compensation in the form of base pay, overtime pay, short term and lo ng term incentives, cash profit sharing, bonuses, commissions among others. The non-monetary rewards include such things as benefits which entail health and group benefits, retirement, paid off, work/ life programs, death benefits and prerequisites (Moynihan & Wells, 2011). Secondly, such a strategy must be aligned to the business strategy of the organization. Depending on the nature of the business strategy adopted by the organization, the strategy should be effective. A reward strategy has the power of minimizing on driving organizational performance and thus an effective total reward strategy must be able to support the overall business strategy to ensure performance. Third, such a strategy must match organizational resources and capabilities. It would be ineffective to design a total reward strategy which is overboard and which organizational resources cannot support. It would also be demeaning and inappropriate to have a strategy that is below what the organization can offer in terms of financial resources and capabilities. Fourth, an effective strategy is one that delivers rewards that drive specific behaviors necessary to achieve organizational objectives (Zingheim & Schuster, 2004). If for example, Avon Products, Inc. has a target of selling one million cosmetic products in one month, the reward strategy should be designed such that it motivates the salespeople to find clients. This could be through bonuses, incentives or a paid holiday trip! This communicates something to
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Business Ethics and corporate social responsibility(new) - Essay Example This is apparent in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising and sales catalogues which depict aspirational youths maintaining the physical characteristics the company believes are stimulating to other youths who look toward reference groups to determine and shape their identities. The brand engages the desirable and shuns what the business considers the undesirable, the less attractive (Logue 2013). The CEO Mike Jeffries made an explicit commentary that the business hires only nice-looking individuals as sales representatives and managers in-store and that the company does not want people who are not cool to wear the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing (Levinson 2013). The majority of the branded clothing merchandise provided by Abercrombie & Fitch serves as a billboard for the company, presenting the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ trading name in very visible and eye-catching font. As the CEO believes that this aspirational brand should retain its most loyal markets, this being trends-focused, attractive and yout hful buyers, the company believes that marketing to other market segments would depreciate the brand value of the organisation and make it less inspiring to loyal consumers. Offered the CEO in a 2006 interview (which has recently resurfaced in mass media), Ã¢â¬Å"Candidly, we go after the cool kids. A lot of people donÃ¢â¬â¢t belong in our clothes, and they canÃ¢â¬â¢t belongÃ¢â¬ (Levinson 2013, p.1). These comments angered one famous celebrity, Hollywood actress Kirstie Alley, who recently shed considerable weight and after having been the victim of media taunting about her explosive weight gain in recent years. Offered Alley, Ã¢â¬Å"blah, blah, blah, blah. That would never make me buy anything from Abercrombie. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got two kids...they will never walk in those doorsÃ¢â¬ (Winston 2013, p.1). In addition, advocates for the rights of overweight consumers have even developed mock advertising campaigns in an effort to bring public attention to the alleged unethical beha viours of the company. Figure 1: Mock A&F Publicity Exposing Hostile Sentiment about CEO Comments Source: LeTrent, S. (2013). Ã¢â¬ËAttractive & FatÃ¢â¬â¢ ad spoofs Abercrombie, CNN Living. [online] Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/23/living/abercrombie-attractive-and-fat (accessed 21 May 2013). The CEO responsible for creating this negative public backlash had, historically, stood by his comments, defending the statements as justifiable with brand strategy and corporate rights. However, with a sudden 17 percent drop in retail sales in the United States as a result of the controversy (Become Gorgeous 2013), the CEO offered, Ã¢â¬Å"We look forward to continuing this dialogue and taking concrete steps to demonstrate our commitment to anti-bullyingÃ¢â¬ (News Limited 2013, p.2). However, prior to this apologetic statement, Abercrombie & Fitch had been the historical target of special interest groups and general societal stakeholders for unethical business behaviours associ ated with alleged pornographically-centric depiction of its advertising models and for offending youth markets that are, essentially, shunned by the business and its representatives. Sales continue to fall with this company quarter by quarter. Literature review Ã¢â¬â Ethical leadership and stakeholder values Some of those who argue that Abercrombie & Fit
Friday, January 31, 2020
Regressionanalysis - Essay Example 494). The weighted mean was 0.0065, which did not support claims that males are better than females. The gender gap among highest performers fails to account for the differences in majors. According to the variance ratio (VR), the group with greater variance has more people in the tails, where math geniuses are found. Greater male variance is characterized by VR > 1.0 (Hyde et al. 495). Among whites, the ratio is 1.45 for the 95th percentile and 2.06 for the 99th percentile (Hyde et al. 495). For Asian Americans they are 1.09 and 0.91 respectively. The latter shows that in the 99th percentile for Asian Americans, females exhibit higher variance. Authors explain that for a ratio of 2 for the 99th percentile, there should be 67 percent males and 33 percent females. However, they argue that PhD programs in engineering have only 15 percent women, which is not in accordance with the mathematical abilities of women presented here. The gender gap for complex problem solving is nonexistent as well. Level 1 or the ability to recall, Level 2 or the ability to approach a problem and evaluate information, and Level 3 or strategic thinking, were tested. Gender differences were quite small. However, Level 4 or ability to think over periods of time and combine knowledge was not tested. Authors argue that precisely this ability is needed in engineering careers (Hyde et al. 495). Lewin did a remarkable job at dissecting the problem and explaining it to the readers. Lewin spent only one sentence summarizing the test results. Besides explaining the results, Lewin also focused on explaining the implications of prejudices and these results on young girls who, despite their amazing performance, are still discouraged by everyone in majoring in mathematically demanding fields. Lewin also expanded on the research by Hyde et al. arguing about SAT scores and how girls perform worse because more girls take the exam. The
Thursday, January 23, 2020
God takes great pleasure in the salvation of men (Lk. 15:4-7). It is His passion, and the sacrifice of His Son is the measure of it (Jo. 3:16; 1 Jo. 4:10). That He would offer His Son for some and not all misreads the divine concern for the lost (Mt. 23:37; Lk. 5:31,32; 15:1-7; 19:10). Scripture affirms that God has done and is doing all that He can wisely and righteously do to save men (Isa. 5:1-7; 53; Jo. 3:14-17; Ro. 3:24-26). It simply will not countenance the insidious notion that fewer saved is better, which is an unavoidable implication of Calvinist theology. Limiting the saving interest of God to some men only is a troubling feature of Calvinism and should concern all who share God's passion for the lost. Hence, the dispute between limited and unlimited atonement is no small matter, as the atonement controversies in the past have shown. That God has unconditionally assigned some to salvation and some to damnation, either before or after the fall, finds no sanction in Scripture. Yet Calvinists say God has either limited the work of Christ to a select few or has limited the Spirit's application of Christ's work to a select few. In either case they limit the atonement unconditionally. Scripture says God wills the salvation of all men (1 Tim. 2:4-6; 2 Pet. 3:9) and that He has provided for all. "All things are ready" (Mt. 22:4). When it comes to salvation, He stands in the same relation to all men. He is the Creator of all (Jo. 1:1-3; Col. 1:16) and the Saviour of all (Jo. 4:42). To say He has undertaken for some and not for all is the voice of limitarian theology and not Scripture. In taking our nature (Heb. 2:14-18)), Christ provided an atonement for all who wear it. He died for every man in particular (Heb. 2:9; 1 Jo.... ...ll address later). They cannot conceive of God's operating on a generous margin, of His making a provision for more than actually enjoy it. Over the years Calvinists have struggled to give their system a friendlier face, a more congenial and universal look. One plan has been to say the atonement is sufficient for all but only efficient for the elect. However, such "universality" is merely theoretical and does not make the non elect any more savable. In this scheme, the atonement is sufficient for all in the sense that, had God intended to save all men, Christ's death would have been sufficient to do so. However, since He never intended to save all, He never included the sins of all in the cross. Thus the atonement is sufficient (theoretically able) to save all but efficient (that is, actually saving) for the elect only because only elect's sins were atoned for. Calvinism Essays -- Religion, God God takes great pleasure in the salvation of men (Lk. 15:4-7). It is His passion, and the sacrifice of His Son is the measure of it (Jo. 3:16; 1 Jo. 4:10). That He would offer His Son for some and not all misreads the divine concern for the lost (Mt. 23:37; Lk. 5:31,32; 15:1-7; 19:10). Scripture affirms that God has done and is doing all that He can wisely and righteously do to save men (Isa. 5:1-7; 53; Jo. 3:14-17; Ro. 3:24-26). It simply will not countenance the insidious notion that fewer saved is better, which is an unavoidable implication of Calvinist theology. Limiting the saving interest of God to some men only is a troubling feature of Calvinism and should concern all who share God's passion for the lost. Hence, the dispute between limited and unlimited atonement is no small matter, as the atonement controversies in the past have shown. That God has unconditionally assigned some to salvation and some to damnation, either before or after the fall, finds no sanction in Scripture. Yet Calvinists say God has either limited the work of Christ to a select few or has limited the Spirit's application of Christ's work to a select few. In either case they limit the atonement unconditionally. Scripture says God wills the salvation of all men (1 Tim. 2:4-6; 2 Pet. 3:9) and that He has provided for all. "All things are ready" (Mt. 22:4). When it comes to salvation, He stands in the same relation to all men. He is the Creator of all (Jo. 1:1-3; Col. 1:16) and the Saviour of all (Jo. 4:42). To say He has undertaken for some and not for all is the voice of limitarian theology and not Scripture. In taking our nature (Heb. 2:14-18)), Christ provided an atonement for all who wear it. He died for every man in particular (Heb. 2:9; 1 Jo.... ...ll address later). They cannot conceive of God's operating on a generous margin, of His making a provision for more than actually enjoy it. Over the years Calvinists have struggled to give their system a friendlier face, a more congenial and universal look. One plan has been to say the atonement is sufficient for all but only efficient for the elect. However, such "universality" is merely theoretical and does not make the non elect any more savable. In this scheme, the atonement is sufficient for all in the sense that, had God intended to save all men, Christ's death would have been sufficient to do so. However, since He never intended to save all, He never included the sins of all in the cross. Thus the atonement is sufficient (theoretically able) to save all but efficient (that is, actually saving) for the elect only because only elect's sins were atoned for.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
On September 11, 2001, the citizens of the United States witnessed a horrific attack on two symbolic buildings in New York City. These tragic events have galvanized the creation and implementation of a myriad of prejudicial and unconstitutional policies designed to provide the illusion of national security while simultaneous creating more instability and animosity between the West and the Middle East. In the wake of 9/11, a multitude of Americans have been overtaken by hysteria and fear. These emotional responses have been generated and intensified by the virtually unanimous Islamophobic propaganda that has been perpetuated by the main stream media. As a result of the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-Islam campaign, Americans have been persuaded to distrust Muslims, instinctively categorize Muslims as terrorist or potential terrorist, as well as sacrifice essential civil liberties. Scapegoating theorist may argue that this portrayal of Arabs and Muslims is one of the ways the U. S. overnment is attempting to blame this group of individuals for the economic and societal woes that plague 21st-century-America. In addition, many would argue that decades of excessive Western consumption, along with globalization have contributed to a complicated, unjust, and turbulent geopolitical and economic climate, which has created a Western need for Middle Eastern dominance. Regardless of their true motives, we can clearly witness the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s hostile categorization of Arabs and Muslims as predominately terroristic or potentially terroristic. The New York Post published a cartoon depicting two Muslims, who are complaining to the Associated Press about the NYPD conducting surveillance of their apartment while they are simultaneously constructing IEDÃ¢â¬â¢s. The suspects are also surrounded by other weapons, as well as ammunition, and contraband. This cartoon exemplifies prejudice, discrimination, and racial profiling, which contribute to a national hostility toward Arabs and animosity between ethnicities and social classes. The ensuing tensions that foment as a result of the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s propaganda campaign provoke more instability and violence into American society. Further complicating American culture is the increasing number of Arabs and Muslims who are immigrating to the New World. For years, the United States has accepted refugees from various tumultuous Middle Eastern territories, which are suffering from perpetual cultural and political chaos. Unfortunately, while many are granted refugee status, they are also facing political and religious persecution in America. The influx of Arabs into the United States and the terror hysteria created by the main stream media has spawned a new era of nativist xenophobia. Richard T. Schaefer reports the frequent stereotypical portrayal of Arabs and Muslims in the media in Racial and Ethnic Groups Census Update. The author states that, Ã¢â¬Å"rarely are Arab and Muslim Americans shown doing Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ behavior such as shopping, attending a sporting event, or just eating without a subtext of terrorism lurking literally in the shadowsÃ¢â¬ (Schaefer, 296). This pervasive and persistent misrepresentation of Arabs and Muslims has intensified and propagated the animosity most Americans have toward this group. In addition to presenting Muslims in a derogatory manner, the cartoon also attempts to justify the necessity of sacrificing civil liberties for supposed security. This cartoon asserts that the NYPD is conducting surveillance because it is instrumental for securing the U. S. and preserving Western civilization as we know it. In this cartoon, the NYPD may be viewed as an exemplary entity employed in the Ã¢â¬Å"War on TerrorÃ¢â¬ and New York City may represent all major cities in the United States, or the United States as a whole. This cartoon demonstrates the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to guide public opinion toward accepting the increasingly aggressive behavior of the police and the state department by exaggerating instances of terror plots on American soil, as well as fabricating instances of governmental counter-terror success. A large faction of the media attempts to portray the majority of Arabs as terrorist, and would argue that cities are vulnerable targets of these diabolical individuals. As a result of this propaganda, Americans are lulled into slowly forfeiting their inalienable rights while obtaining a deceiving feeling of safety. The media is a powerful force contributing to the ebbs and flows of social norms and cultural opinion. The aforementioned cartoon provides an example of the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to persuade the public and control the masses.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
For more than forty years, human rights activist and Muslim minister, Elijah Muhammad stood at the helm of the Nation of IslamÃ¢â¬âa religious organization that combined the teachings of Islam with a strong emphasis on morality and self-sufficiency for African-Americans. Muhammad, a devout believer in black nationalism once even said, Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro wants to be everything but himself[...] He wants to integrate with the white man, but he cannot integrate with himself or with his own kind. The Negro wants to lose his identity because he does not know his own identity.Ã¢â¬ Muhammad Rejects the Jim Crow South Muhammad was born Elijah Robert Poole on October 7, 1897 in Sandersville, GA. His father, William, was a sharecropper and his mother, Mariah, was a domestic worker. Muhammad workforce in Cordele, GA with his 13 siblings. By the fourth grade, he had stopped attending school and began working a variety of jobs in sawmills and brickyards. In 1917, Muhammad married Clara Evans. Together, the couple had eight children. By 1923, Muhammad had grown tired of the Jim Crow South saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I seen enough of the white manÃ¢â¬â¢s brutality to last me 26,000 years.Ã¢â¬ Muhammad moved his wife and children to Detroit as part of the great migration and found work in an automobile factory. In Detroit, Muhammad was drawn to the teachings of Marcus Garvey and became a member of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. The Nation of Islam In 1931, Muhammad met Wallace D. Fard, a salesman who had begun teaching African-Americans in the Detroit area about Islam. FardÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings connected the principles of Islam with black nationalismÃ¢â¬âideas that were attractive to Muhammad. Soon after their meeting, Muhammad converted to Islam and changed his name from Robert Elijah Poole to Elijah Muhammad. In 1934, Fard disappeared and Muhammad assumed leadership of the Nation of Islam.Ã Muhammad established Final Call to Islam, a news publication that helped build the membership of the religious organization. In addition, Muhammad University of Islam was founded to educate children. The Temple of Islam Following the disappearance of Fard, Muhammad took a group of the Nation of IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s followers to Chicago while the organization broke off into other factions of Islam. Once in Chicago, Muhammad founded Temple of Islam No. 2, establishing the town as the headquarters of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad began preaching the philosophy of the Nation of Islam and began attracting African-Americans in urban areas to the religious organization. Soon after making Chicago the national headquarters for the Nation of Islam, Muhammad traveled to Milwaukee where he established Temple No. 3 and Temple No. 4 in Washington D.C. MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s success was halted when he was imprisoned in 1942 for refusing to respond to a World War IIÃ draft. While imprisoned, Muhammad continued to spread the teachings of the Nation of Islam to inmates. When Muhammad was released in 1946, he continued to lead the Nation of Islam, claiming that he was AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s messenger and that Fard was in fact, Allah. By 1955, the Nation of Islam had expanded to include 15 temples and by 1959, there 50 temples in 22 states. Until his death in 1975, Muhammad continued to grow the Nation of Islam from a small religious organization to one that had multiple streams of income and had gained national prominence. Muhammad published two books, Message to the Black Man in 1965 and How to Eat to Live in 1972. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s publication, Muhammad Speaks, was in circulation and at the height of the Nation of IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity, the organization boasted a membership of an estimated 250,000.Ã Muhammad also mentored men such as Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan and several of his sons, who were also devout members of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad died of congestive heart failure in 1975 in Chicago. Sources Muhammad, Elijah. How to Eat to Live - Book One: From God In Person, Master Fard Muhammad. Paperback, Reprint edition, Secretarius Memps Publications, August 30, 2006. Muhammad, Elijah. Message to the Blackman in America. Paperback, Secretarius Memps Publications, September 5, 2006.